Page 61 - Ad Hoc Report June 2018
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 the time of the Prado Report in 1993, the number of CJA appointments had more than quintupled, from 16,000 in 1964 to approximately 80,000 thirty years later. Total program expenditures in fiscal year 1993 surpassed $295 million. The Prado Report identified various underlying causes, including massive growth in the number of federal prosecutions overall, a significant increase in drug cases, a drastic increase in the length and complexity of federal criminal cases, and the introduction of sen- tencing guidelines and mandatory minimums.63
The CJA program itself expanded and matured to satisfy the demand for appointed counsel. By 1993, approximately 40 federal public defender offices (FPDOs) had been established to serve over half of the 94 judicial districts. Additionally, there were nine community defender offices (CDOs)—non-profit organizations incorporated to provide criminal defense services on par with their federal defender counterparts—representing indigent defendants in 10 districts.64
Still, the Prado Report recognized that the capacity of the defender program had not kept pace with the enormous rise in need. The Report stated that after three decades, “The management needs of this large and complex program have out- grown what can properly be expected through even the highly conscientious efforts of the Judicial Conference and the Defender Services Committee.”65
Continued expansion of federal criminal jurisdiction,66 even greater case complexity and challenges in sentencing, voluminous electronic discovery, and
an exponential increase in immigration cases have led to even further growth of
the defender program under the CJA. Today, there are 81 federal and community defender offices serving 91 judicial districts. The number of appointments to those offices has more than quadrupled, from 37,685 in 1993 to 161,540 in fiscal year 2016, while the number of cases appointed to panel attorneys has more than doubled since the Prado report to 80,535. Even since 2000, total appointments to panel attorneys and defender offices have nearly doubled, from 118,494 to 226,710 in 2015.67 Today, roughly 93 percent of criminal defendants in federal court require appointed counsel.
63 PradoReportat1.
64 JCUSReport1993at3.
65 PradoReportat1.
66 Whiletheexpansionoffederalcriminaljurisdictionhasbeenthesubjectofmanyotherreports, for comparison, in 1990 just before the Prado Committee began its study, the total requested for
just salaries and expenses for United States attorneys employed by the Department of Justice was $454,279,000. For FY2015, at the start of this Committee’s study, for salaries and expenses, the DOJ requested $1,995,300,000. These numbers do not include the significant amount of money expended towards investigation, forensic analysis, or requested by other agencies like the FBI or DEA for assistance with federal prosecutions. See Office of Mgmt. & Budget, Exec. Office of the President, Budget of the United States Gov’t, Fiscal Year 1990, 485 (Jan. 9, 1989); U.S. DOJ, FY2015 Summary Information by Appropriation: U.S. Attorneys, available at files/jmd/legacy/2014/05/04/usa.pdf, (last visited July 26, 2017).
67 U.S.FederalCourts,JudicialBusiness200028 files/2000judicialbusiness.pdf. (last visited July 26, 2017); U.S. Federal Courts, Federal Judicial Caseload Statistics, Criminal Justice Act—Judicial Business 2015 criminal-justice-act-judicial-business-2015, (last visited July 26, 2017).
No recommendation presented herein represents
the policy of the Judicial Conference of the United 2 0 1 7 R E P O R T O F T H E A D H O C C O M M I T T E E T O R E V I E W T H E C R I M I N A L J U S T I C E A C T 17
 States unless approved by the Conference itself.

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